The Pax Romana & spread of Roman civilization
The Pax Romana & spread of Roman civilization

One of the greatest legacies of the Pax Romana was the spread of Roman culture to Western Europe. Roman rule in the semi-civilized areas of...

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The Augustan Principate (31 BCE-160 CE)
The Augustan Principate (31 BCE-160 CE)

Octavian's victory over Antony and Cleopatra ended a century of civil turmoil and decay.  When he returned to Rome in triumph in 29...

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Further expansion of Roman Power (200-133 BCE)
Further expansion of Roman Power (200-133 BCE)

Like it or not, (and many Romans did not), Rome was now a Mediterranean power.  This involved it in an ever-widening circle of affairs tha...

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The problems of Empire
The problems of Empire

Success often carries with it the seeds of its own destruction, and that was certainly the case with the Roman republic by the late se...

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The Flow of Power in the Roman Republic
The Flow of Power in the Roman Republic

Many of the problems of the late Roman Republic came from how a small number of powerful men were able to manipulate power and turn what l...

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Rome versus Carthage: The Punic wars (264-201 BCE)
Rome versus Carthage: The Punic wars (264-201 BCE)

The First Punic War(264-241 B.C.E.) Rome's first overseas wars were against Carthage on the coast of North Africa, the largest, mos...

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The Roman conquest of the Mediterranean (264-133 BCE)
The Roman conquest of the Mediterranean (264-133 BCE)

Just as Rome got caught up in a cycle of expansion that led to the conquest of Italy, it experienced another such cycle that led to th...

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The Roman conquest of Italy (c.500-265 BCE)
The Roman conquest of Italy (c.500-265 BCE)

Rome's pattern of conquest Except for the brief interruption of the Gallic disaster, Roman expansion in Italy was almost uninterrup...

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The Etruscans & their influence on Rome (c.800-500 BCE)
The Etruscans & their influence on Rome (c.800-500 BCE)

Although there is evidence in Roman myth and archaeology of various shepherd villages on Rome's seven hills, the city's history...

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The Impact of Geography on Ancient Italy
The Impact of Geography on Ancient Italy

Introduction When we think of the Greeks, we think of a bold, intelligent people who gave us so much in the way of art, architecture, d...

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Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic era (336 BCE-31 BCE)
Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic era (336 BCE-31 BCE)

The period of the Greek polis before the Macedonian conquest of Greece and Alexander the Great's conquests is known as the Hellenic...

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The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE)
The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE)

The conflict that triggered the long collapse of the polis was the Peloponnesian War.  It started when Athens, wanting to control trade...

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